1. A branch of knowledge that one studies. 2. The suppression of base desires, usually understood to be synonymous with self-control restraint and control. 3. The use of reason to determine the best course of action regardless of one’s desires, which may be the opposite of what a person is excited to do. Virtuous behavior can be described as when a person’s values are aligned with their aims: to do what they know is best and to do it gladly. 4. The training that develops self-control, character, orderliness, and efficiency. In other words, the ability to start, continue, and produce the results envisioned and planned in the time, place, and shape, at a consistent level of excellence as intended. 5. The use of punishment to correct disobedience and to enforce compliance with rules.